Library Coq.Init.Datatypes

Set Implicit Arguments.

Require Import Notations.
Require Import Ltac.
Require Import Logic.

Datatypes with zero and one element

Empty_set is a datatype with no inhabitant

Inductive Empty_set : Set :=.

Register Empty_set as core.Empty_set.type.

unit is a singleton datatype with sole inhabitant tt

Inductive unit : Set :=
    tt : unit.

Register unit as core.unit.type.
Register tt as

The boolean datatype

bool is the datatype of the boolean values true and false

Inductive bool : Set :=
  | true : bool
  | false : bool.

Add Printing If bool.

Declare Scope bool_scope.
Delimit Scope bool_scope with bool.
Bind Scope bool_scope with bool.

Register bool as core.bool.type.
Register true as core.bool.true.
Register false as core.bool.false.

Basic boolean operators

Definition andb (b1 b2:bool) : bool := if b1 then b2 else false.

Definition orb (b1 b2:bool) : bool := if b1 then true else b2.

Definition implb (b1 b2:bool) : bool := if b1 then b2 else true.

Definition xorb (b1 b2:bool) : bool :=
  match b1, b2 with
    | true, true => false
    | true, false => true
    | false, true => true
    | false, false => false

Definition negb (b:bool) := if b then false else true.

Infix "||" := orb : bool_scope.
Infix "&&" := andb : bool_scope.

Register andb as core.bool.andb.
Register orb as core.bool.orb.
Register implb as core.bool.implb.
Register xorb as core.bool.xorb.
Register negb as core.bool.negb.

Basic properties of andb

Lemma andb_prop (a b:bool) : andb a b = true -> a = true /\ b = true.
Hint Resolve andb_prop: bool.

Register andb_prop as core.bool.andb_prop.

Lemma andb_true_intro (b1 b2:bool) :
  b1 = true /\ b2 = true -> andb b1 b2 = true.
Hint Resolve andb_true_intro: bool.

Register andb_true_intro as core.bool.andb_true_intro.

Interpretation of booleans as propositions

Inductive eq_true : bool -> Prop := is_eq_true : eq_true true.

Hint Constructors eq_true : eq_true.

Register eq_true as core.eq_true.type.

Another way of interpreting booleans as propositions

Definition is_true b := b = true.

is_true can be activated as a coercion by (Local) Coercion is_true : bool >-> Sortclass.
Additional rewriting lemmas about eq_true

Lemma eq_true_ind_r :
  forall (P : bool -> Prop) (b : bool), P b -> eq_true b -> P true.

Lemma eq_true_rec_r :
  forall (P : bool -> Set) (b : bool), P b -> eq_true b -> P true.

Lemma eq_true_rect_r :
  forall (P : bool -> Type) (b : bool), P b -> eq_true b -> P true.

The BoolSpec inductive will be used to relate a boolean value and two propositions corresponding respectively to the true case and the false case. Interest: BoolSpec behave nicely with case and destruct. See also Bool.reflect when Q = ~P.

Inductive BoolSpec (P Q : Prop) : bool -> Prop :=
  | BoolSpecT : P -> BoolSpec P Q true
  | BoolSpecF : Q -> BoolSpec P Q false.
Hint Constructors BoolSpec : core.

Register BoolSpec as core.BoolSpec.type.
Register BoolSpecT as core.BoolSpec.BoolSpecT.
Register BoolSpecF as core.BoolSpec.BoolSpecF.

Peano natural numbers

nat is the datatype of natural numbers built from O and successor S; note that the constructor name is the letter O. Numbers in nat can be denoted using a decimal notation; e.g. 3%nat abbreviates S (S (S O))

Inductive nat : Set :=
  | O : nat
  | S : nat -> nat.

Declare Scope hex_nat_scope.
Delimit Scope hex_nat_scope with xnat.

Declare Scope nat_scope.
Delimit Scope nat_scope with nat.
Bind Scope nat_scope with nat.
Arguments S _%nat.

Register nat as num.nat.type.
Register O as num.nat.O.
Register S as num.nat.S.

Container datatypes

option A is the extension of A with an extra element None

Inductive option (A:Type) : Type :=
  | Some : A -> option A
  | None : option A.

Arguments Some {A} a.
Arguments None {A}.

Register option as core.option.type.
Register Some as core.option.Some.
Register None as core.option.None.

Definition option_map (A B:Type) (f:A->B) (o : option A) : option B :=
  match o with
    | Some a => @Some B (f a)
    | None => @None B

sum A B, written A + B, is the disjoint sum of A and B

Inductive sum (A B:Type) : Type :=
  | inl : A -> sum A B
  | inr : B -> sum A B.

Notation "x + y" := (sum x y) : type_scope.

Arguments inl {A B} _ , [A] B _.
Arguments inr {A B} _ , A [B] _.

Register sum as core.sum.type.
Register inl as core.sum.inl.
Register inr as core.sum.inr.

prod A B, written A * B, is the product of A and B; the pair pair A B a b of a and b is abbreviated (a,b)

Inductive prod (A B:Type) : Type :=
  pair : A -> B -> A * B

where "x * y" := (prod x y) : type_scope.

Add Printing Let prod.

Notation "( x , y , .. , z )" := (pair .. (pair x y) .. z) : core_scope.

Arguments pair {A B} _ _.

Register prod as
Register pair as
Register prod_rect as

Section projections.
  Context {A : Type} {B : Type}.

  Definition fst (p:A * B) := match p with (x, y) => x end.
  Definition snd (p:A * B) := match p with (x, y) => y end.

  Register fst as
  Register snd as

End projections.

Hint Resolve pair inl inr: core.

Lemma surjective_pairing (A B:Type) (p:A * B) : p = (fst p, snd p).

Lemma injective_projections (A B:Type) (p1 p2:A * B) :
    fst p1 = fst p2 -> snd p1 = snd p2 -> p1 = p2.

Lemma pair_equal_spec (A B : Type) (a1 a2 : A) (b1 b2 : B) :
    (a1, b1) = (a2, b2) <-> a1 = a2 /\ b1 = b2.

Definition curry {A B C:Type} (f:A * B -> C)
  (x:A) (y:B) : C := f (x,y).

Definition uncurry {A B C:Type} (f:A -> B -> C)
  (p:A * B) : C := match p with (x, y) => f x y end.

#[deprecated(since = "8.13", note = "Use curry instead.")]
Definition prod_uncurry (A B C:Type) : (A * B -> C) -> A -> B -> C := curry.

#[deprecated(since = "8.13", note = "Use uncurry instead.")]
Definition prod_curry (A B C:Type) : (A -> B -> C) -> A * B -> C := uncurry.

Import EqNotations.

Lemma rew_pair A (P Q : A->Type) x1 x2 (y1:P x1) (y2:Q x1) (H:x1=x2) :
  (rew H in y1, rew H in y2) = rew [fun x => (P x * Q x)%type] H in (y1,y2).

Polymorphic lists and some operations

Inductive list (A : Type) : Type :=
 | nil : list A
 | cons : A -> list A -> list A.

Arguments nil {A}.
Arguments cons {A} a l.

Declare Scope list_scope.
Delimit Scope list_scope with list.
Bind Scope list_scope with list.

Infix "::" := cons (at level 60, right associativity) : list_scope.

Register list as core.list.type.
Register nil as core.list.nil.
Register cons as core.list.cons.

Local Open Scope list_scope.

Definition length (A : Type) : list A -> nat :=
  fix length l :=
  match l with
   | nil => O
   | _ :: l' => S (length l')

Concatenation of two lists

Definition app (A : Type) : list A -> list A -> list A :=
  fix app l m :=
  match l with
   | nil => m
   | a :: l1 => a :: app l1 m

Infix "++" := app (right associativity, at level 60) : list_scope.

The comparison datatype

Inductive comparison : Set :=
  | Eq : comparison
  | Lt : comparison
  | Gt : comparison.

Register comparison as core.comparison.type.
Register Eq as core.comparison.Eq.
Register Lt as core.comparison.Lt.
Register Gt as core.comparison.Gt.

Lemma comparison_eq_stable (c c' : comparison) : ~~ c = c' -> c = c'.

Definition CompOpp (r:comparison) :=
  match r with
    | Eq => Eq
    | Lt => Gt
    | Gt => Lt

Lemma CompOpp_involutive c : CompOpp (CompOpp c) = c.

Lemma CompOpp_inj c c' : CompOpp c = CompOpp c' -> c = c'.

Lemma CompOpp_iff : forall c c', CompOpp c = c' <-> c = CompOpp c'.

The CompareSpec inductive relates a comparison value with three propositions, one for each possible case. Typically, it can be used to specify a comparison function via some equality and order predicates. Interest: CompareSpec behave nicely with case and destruct.

Inductive CompareSpec (Peq Plt Pgt : Prop) : comparison -> Prop :=
 | CompEq : Peq -> CompareSpec Peq Plt Pgt Eq
 | CompLt : Plt -> CompareSpec Peq Plt Pgt Lt
 | CompGt : Pgt -> CompareSpec Peq Plt Pgt Gt.
Hint Constructors CompareSpec : core.

Register CompareSpec as core.CompareSpec.type.
Register CompEq as core.CompareSpec.CompEq.
Register CompLt as core.CompareSpec.CompLt.
Register CompGt as core.CompareSpec.CompGt.

For having clean interfaces after extraction, CompareSpec is declared in Prop. For some situations, it is nonetheless useful to have a version in Type. Interestingly, these two versions are equivalent.

Inductive CompareSpecT (Peq Plt Pgt : Prop) : comparison -> Type :=
 | CompEqT : Peq -> CompareSpecT Peq Plt Pgt Eq
 | CompLtT : Plt -> CompareSpecT Peq Plt Pgt Lt
 | CompGtT : Pgt -> CompareSpecT Peq Plt Pgt Gt.
Hint Constructors CompareSpecT : core.

Register CompareSpecT as core.CompareSpecT.type.
Register CompEqT as core.CompareSpecT.CompEqT.
Register CompLtT as core.CompareSpecT.CompLtT.
Register CompGtT as core.CompareSpecT.CompGtT.

Lemma CompareSpec2Type Peq Plt Pgt c :
 CompareSpec Peq Plt Pgt c -> CompareSpecT Peq Plt Pgt c.

As an alternate formulation, one may also directly refer to predicates eq and lt for specifying a comparison, rather that fully-applied propositions. This CompSpec is now a particular case of CompareSpec.

Definition CompSpec {A} (eq lt : A->A->Prop)(x y:A) : comparison -> Prop :=
 CompareSpec (eq x y) (lt x y) (lt y x).

Definition CompSpecT {A} (eq lt : A->A->Prop)(x y:A) : comparison -> Type :=
 CompareSpecT (eq x y) (lt x y) (lt y x).
Hint Unfold CompSpec CompSpecT : core.

Lemma CompSpec2Type : forall A (eq lt:A->A->Prop) x y c,
 CompSpec eq lt x y c -> CompSpecT eq lt x y c.

Misc Other Datatypes

identity A a is the family of datatypes on A whose sole non-empty member is the singleton datatype identity A a a whose sole inhabitant is denoted identity_refl A a Beware: this inductive actually falls into Prop, as the sole constructor has no arguments and -indices-matter is not activated in the standard library.

Inductive identity (A:Type) (a:A) : A -> Type :=
  identity_refl : identity a a.
Hint Resolve identity_refl: core.

Arguments identity_ind [A] a P f y i.
Arguments identity_rec [A] a P f y i.
Arguments identity_rect [A] a P f y i.

Register identity as core.identity.type.
Register identity_refl as core.identity.refl.
Register identity_ind as core.identity.ind.

Identity type

Definition ID := forall A:Type, A -> A.
Definition id : ID := fun A x => x.

Definition IDProp := forall A:Prop, A -> A.
Definition idProp : IDProp := fun A x => x.

Register IDProp as core.IDProp.type.
Register idProp as core.IDProp.idProp.