$\begin{split}\newcommand{\as}{\kw{as}} \newcommand{\case}{\kw{case}} \newcommand{\cons}{\textsf{cons}} \newcommand{\consf}{\textsf{consf}} \newcommand{\emptyf}{\textsf{emptyf}} \newcommand{\End}{\kw{End}} \newcommand{\kwend}{\kw{end}} \newcommand{\even}{\textsf{even}} \newcommand{\evenO}{\textsf{even}_\textsf{O}} \newcommand{\evenS}{\textsf{even}_\textsf{S}} \newcommand{\Fix}{\kw{Fix}} \newcommand{\fix}{\kw{fix}} \newcommand{\for}{\textsf{for}} \newcommand{\forest}{\textsf{forest}} \newcommand{\Functor}{\kw{Functor}} \newcommand{\In}{\kw{in}} \newcommand{\ind}[3]{\kw{Ind}~[#1]\left(#2\mathrm{~:=~}#3\right)} \newcommand{\Indp}[4]{\kw{Ind}_{#4}[#1](#2:=#3)} \newcommand{\Indpstr}[5]{\kw{Ind}_{#4}[#1](#2:=#3)/{#5}} \newcommand{\injective}{\kw{injective}} \newcommand{\kw}[1]{\textsf{#1}} \newcommand{\length}{\textsf{length}} \newcommand{\letin}[3]{\kw{let}~#1:=#2~\kw{in}~#3} \newcommand{\List}{\textsf{list}} \newcommand{\lra}{\longrightarrow} \newcommand{\Match}{\kw{match}} \newcommand{\Mod}[3]{{\kw{Mod}}({#1}:{#2}\,\zeroone{:={#3}})} \newcommand{\ModImp}[3]{{\kw{Mod}}({#1}:{#2}:={#3})} \newcommand{\ModA}[2]{{\kw{ModA}}({#1}=={#2})} \newcommand{\ModS}[2]{{\kw{Mod}}({#1}:{#2})} \newcommand{\ModType}[2]{{\kw{ModType}}({#1}:={#2})} \newcommand{\mto}{.\;} \newcommand{\nat}{\textsf{nat}} \newcommand{\Nil}{\textsf{nil}} \newcommand{\nilhl}{\textsf{nil\_hl}} \newcommand{\nO}{\textsf{O}} \newcommand{\node}{\textsf{node}} \newcommand{\nS}{\textsf{S}} \newcommand{\odd}{\textsf{odd}} \newcommand{\oddS}{\textsf{odd}_\textsf{S}} \newcommand{\ovl}[1]{\overline{#1}} \newcommand{\Pair}{\textsf{pair}} \newcommand{\plus}{\mathsf{plus}} \newcommand{\SProp}{\textsf{SProp}} \newcommand{\Prop}{\textsf{Prop}} \newcommand{\return}{\kw{return}} \newcommand{\Set}{\textsf{Set}} \newcommand{\Sort}{\mathcal{S}} \newcommand{\Str}{\textsf{Stream}} \newcommand{\Struct}{\kw{Struct}} \newcommand{\subst}[3]{#1\{#2/#3\}} \newcommand{\tl}{\textsf{tl}} \newcommand{\tree}{\textsf{tree}} \newcommand{\trii}{\triangleright_\iota} \newcommand{\Type}{\textsf{Type}} \newcommand{\WEV}[3]{\mbox{#1[] \vdash #2 \lra #3}} \newcommand{\WEVT}[3]{\mbox{#1[] \vdash #2 \lra}\\ \mbox{ #3}} \newcommand{\WF}[2]{{\mathcal{W\!F}}(#1)[#2]} \newcommand{\WFE}[1]{\WF{E}{#1}} \newcommand{\WFT}[2]{#1[] \vdash {\mathcal{W\!F}}(#2)} \newcommand{\WFTWOLINES}[2]{{\mathcal{W\!F}}\begin{array}{l}(#1)\\\mbox{}[{#2}]\end{array}} \newcommand{\with}{\kw{with}} \newcommand{\WS}[3]{#1[] \vdash #2 <: #3} \newcommand{\WSE}[2]{\WS{E}{#1}{#2}} \newcommand{\WT}[4]{#1[#2] \vdash #3 : #4} \newcommand{\WTE}[3]{\WT{E}{#1}{#2}{#3}} \newcommand{\WTEG}[2]{\WTE{\Gamma}{#1}{#2}} \newcommand{\WTM}[3]{\WT{#1}{}{#2}{#3}} \newcommand{\zeroone}[1]{[{#1}]} \end{split}$

# Canonical Structures¶

Authors

Assia Mahboubi and Enrico Tassi

This chapter explains the basics of canonical structures and how they can be used to overload notations and build a hierarchy of algebraic structures. The examples are taken from [MT13]. We invite the interested reader to refer to this paper for all the details that are omitted here for brevity. The interested reader shall also find in [GZND11] a detailed description of another, complementary, use of canonical structures: advanced proof search. This latter papers also presents many techniques one can employ to tune the inference of canonical structures.

## Declaration of canonical structures¶

A canonical structure is an instance of a record/structure type that can be used to solve unification problems involving a projection applied to an unknown structure instance (an implicit argument) and a value. The complete documentation of canonical structures can be found in Canonical Structures; here only a simple example is given.

Command Canonical Structure? reference
Command Canonical Structure? ident_decl def_body

The first form of this command declares an existing reference as a canonical instance of a structure (a record).

The second form defines a new constant as if the Definition command had been used, then declares it as a canonical instance as if the first form had been used on the defined object.

This command supports the local attribute. When used, the structure is canonical only within the Section containing it.

qualid (in reference) denotes an object (Build_struct c1 … cn) in the structure struct for which the fields are x1, …, xn. Then, each time an equation of the form (xi _) =$$_{βδιζ}$$ ci has to be solved during the type checking process, qualid is used as a solution. Otherwise said, qualid is canonically used to extend the field xi into a complete structure built on ci when ci unifies with (xi _).

The following kinds of terms are supported for the fields ci of qualid:

• Constants and section variables of an active section, applied to zero or more arguments.

• Literal functions: fun … => ….

• Literal, (possibly dependent) function types: … -> … and forall …, ….

• Variables bound in qualid.

Only the head symbol of an existing instance's field ci is considered when searching for a canonical extension. We call this head symbol the key and we say "qualid keys the field xi to k" when ci's head symbol is k. Keys are the only piece of information that is used for canonical extension. The keys corresponding to the kinds of terms listed above are:

• For constants and section variables, potentially applied to arguments: the constant or variable itself, disregarding any arguments.

• For sorts: the sort itself.

• For literal functions: skip the abstractions and use the key of the body.

• For literal function types: a disembodied implication key denoted forall _, _, disregarding both its domain and codomain.

• For variables bound in qualid: a catch-all key denoted _.

This means that, for example, (some_constant x1) and (some_constant (other_constant y1 y2) x2) are not distinct keys.

Variables bound in qualid match any term for the purpose of canonical extension. This has two major consequences for a field ci keyed to a variable of qualid:

1. Unless another key—and, thus, instance—matches ci, the instance will always be considered by unification.

2. ci will be considered overlapping not distinct from any other canonical instance that keys xi to one of its own variables.

A record field xi can only be keyed once to each key. Coq prints a warning when qualid keys xi to a term whose head symbol is already keyed by an existing canonical instance. In this case, Coq will not register that qualid as a canonical extension. (The remaining fields of the instance can still be used for canonical extension.)

Canonical structures are particularly useful when mixed with coercions and strict implicit arguments.

Example

Here is an example.

Require Import Relations.
Require Import EqNat.
Set Implicit Arguments.
Unset Strict Implicit.
Structure Setoid : Type := {Carrier :> Set; Equal : relation Carrier;                             Prf_equiv : equivalence Carrier Equal}.
Setoid is defined Carrier is defined Equal is defined Prf_equiv is defined
Definition is_law (A B:Setoid) (f:A -> B) := forall x y:A, Equal x y -> Equal (f x) (f y).
is_law is defined
Axiom eq_nat_equiv : equivalence nat eq_nat.
eq_nat_equiv is declared
Definition nat_setoid : Setoid := Build_Setoid eq_nat_equiv.
nat_setoid is defined
Canonical nat_setoid.

Thanks to nat_setoid declared as canonical, the implicit arguments A and B can be synthesized in the next statement.

Lemma is_law_S : is_law S.
1 goal ============================ is_law (A:=nat_setoid) (B:=nat_setoid) S

Note

If a same field occurs in several canonical structures, then only the structure declared first as canonical is considered.

Attribute canonical= yes​no?

This boolean attribute can decorate a Definition or Let command. It is equivalent to having a Canonical Structure declaration just after the command.

To prevent a field from being involved in the inference of canonical instances, its declaration can be annotated with canonical=no (cf. the syntax of record_field).

Example

For instance, when declaring the Setoid structure above, the Prf_equiv field declaration could be written as follows.

#[canonical=no] Prf_equiv : equivalence Carrier Equal

See Hierarchy of structures for a more realistic example.

Command Print Canonical Projections reference*

This displays the list of global names that are components of some canonical structure. For each of them, the canonical structure of which it is a projection is indicated. If constants are given as its arguments, only the unification rules that involve or are synthesized from simultaneously all given constants will be shown.

Example

For instance, the above example gives the following output:

Print Canonical Projections.
nat <- Carrier ( nat_setoid ) eq_nat <- Equal ( nat_setoid ) eq_nat_equiv <- Prf_equiv ( nat_setoid )
Print Canonical Projections nat.
nat <- Carrier ( nat_setoid )

Note

The last line in the first example would not show up if the corresponding projection (namely Prf_equiv) were annotated as not canonical, as described above.

We build an infix notation == for a comparison predicate. Such notation will be overloaded, and its meaning will depend on the types of the terms that are compared.

Module EQ.
Interactive Module EQ started
Record class (T : Type) := Class { cmp : T -> T -> Prop }.
class is defined cmp is defined
Structure type := Pack { obj : Type; class_of : class obj }.
type is defined obj is defined class_of is defined
Definition op (e : type) : obj e -> obj e -> Prop :=     let 'Pack _ (Class _ the_cmp) := e in the_cmp.
op is defined
Check op.
op : forall e : type, obj e -> obj e -> Prop
Arguments op {e} x y : simpl never.
Arguments Class {T} cmp.
Module theory.
Interactive Module theory started
Notation "x == y" := (op x y) (at level 70).
End theory.
Module theory is defined
End EQ.
Module EQ is defined

We use Coq modules as namespaces. This allows us to follow the same pattern and naming convention for the rest of the chapter. The base namespace contains the definitions of the algebraic structure. To keep the example small, the algebraic structure EQ.type we are defining is very simplistic, and characterizes terms on which a binary relation is defined, without requiring such relation to validate any property. The inner theory module contains the overloaded notation == and will eventually contain lemmas holding all the instances of the algebraic structure (in this case there are no lemmas).

Note that in practice the user may want to declare EQ.obj as a coercion, but we will not do that here.

The following line tests that, when we assume a type e that is in theEQ class, we can relate two of its objects with ==.

Import EQ.theory.
Check forall (e : EQ.type) (a b : EQ.obj e), a == b.
forall (e : EQ.type) (a b : EQ.obj e), a == b : Prop

Still, no concrete type is in the EQ class.

Fail Check 3 == 3.
The command has indeed failed with message: The term "3" has type "nat" while it is expected to have type "EQ.obj ?e".

We amend that by equipping nat with a comparison relation.

Definition nat_eq (x y : nat) := Nat.compare x y = Eq.
nat_eq is defined
Definition nat_EQcl : EQ.class nat := EQ.Class nat_eq.
nat_EQcl is defined
Canonical Structure nat_EQty : EQ.type := EQ.Pack nat nat_EQcl.
nat_EQty is defined
Check 3 == 3.
3 == 3 : Prop
Eval compute in 3 == 4.
= Lt = Eq : Prop

This last test shows that Coq is now not only able to type check 3 == 3, but also that the infix relation was bound to the nat_eq relation. This relation is selected whenever == is used on terms of type nat. This can be read in the line declaring the canonical structure nat_EQty, where the first argument to Pack is the key and its second argument a group of canonical values associated with the key. In this case we associate with nat only one canonical value (since its class, nat_EQcl has just one member). The use of the projection op requires its argument to be in the class EQ, and uses such a member (function) to actually compare its arguments.

Similarly, we could equip any other type with a comparison relation, and use the == notation on terms of this type.

### Derived Canonical Structures¶

We know how to use == on base types, like nat, bool, Z. Here we show how to deal with type constructors, i.e. how to make the following example work:

Fail Check forall (e : EQ.type) (a b : EQ.obj e), (a, b) == (a, b).
The command has indeed failed with message: In environment e : EQ.type a : EQ.obj e b : EQ.obj e The term "(a, b)" has type "(EQ.obj e * EQ.obj e)%type" while it is expected to have type "EQ.obj ?e".

The error message is telling that Coq has no idea on how to compare pairs of objects. The following construction is telling Coq exactly how to do that.

Definition pair_eq (e1 e2 : EQ.type) (x y : EQ.obj e1 * EQ.obj e2) :=   fst x == fst y /\ snd x == snd y.
pair_eq is defined
Definition pair_EQcl e1 e2 := EQ.Class (pair_eq e1 e2).
pair_EQcl is defined
Canonical Structure pair_EQty (e1 e2 : EQ.type) : EQ.type :=     EQ.Pack (EQ.obj e1 * EQ.obj e2) (pair_EQcl e1 e2).
pair_EQty is defined
Check forall (e : EQ.type) (a b : EQ.obj e), (a, b) == (a, b).
forall (e : EQ.type) (a b : EQ.obj e), (a, b) == (a, b) : Prop
Check forall n m : nat, (3, 4) == (n, m).
forall n m : nat, (3, 4) == (n, m) : Prop

Thanks to the pair_EQty declaration, Coq is able to build a comparison relation for pairs whenever it is able to build a comparison relation for each component of the pair. The declaration associates to the key * (the type constructor of pairs) the canonical comparison relation pair_eq whenever the type constructor * is applied to two types being themselves in the EQ class.

## Hierarchy of structures¶

To get to an interesting example we need another base class to be available. We choose the class of types that are equipped with an order relation, to which we associate the infix <= notation.

Module LE.
Interactive Module LE started
Record class T := Class { cmp : T -> T -> Prop }.
class is defined cmp is defined
Structure type := Pack { obj : Type; class_of : class obj }.
type is defined obj is defined class_of is defined
Definition op (e : type) : obj e -> obj e -> Prop :=     let 'Pack _ (Class _ f) := e in f.
op is defined
Arguments op {_} x y : simpl never.
Arguments Class {T} cmp.
Module theory.
Interactive Module theory started
Notation "x <= y" := (op x y) (at level 70).
End theory.
Module theory is defined
End LE.
Module LE is defined

As before we register a canonical LE class for nat.

Import LE.theory.
Definition nat_le x y := Nat.compare x y <> Gt.
nat_le is defined
Definition nat_LEcl : LE.class nat := LE.Class nat_le.
nat_LEcl is defined
Canonical Structure nat_LEty : LE.type := LE.Pack nat nat_LEcl.
nat_LEty is defined

And we enable Coq to relate pair of terms with <=.

Definition pair_le e1 e2 (x y : LE.obj e1 * LE.obj e2) :=    fst x <= fst y /\ snd x <= snd y.
pair_le is defined
Definition pair_LEcl e1 e2 := LE.Class (pair_le e1 e2).
pair_LEcl is defined
Canonical Structure pair_LEty (e1 e2 : LE.type) : LE.type :=    LE.Pack (LE.obj e1 * LE.obj e2) (pair_LEcl e1 e2).
pair_LEty is defined
Check (3,4,5) <= (3,4,5).
(3, 4, 5) <= (3, 4, 5) : Prop

At the current stage we can use == and <= on concrete types, like tuples of natural numbers, but we can’t develop an algebraic theory over the types that are equipped with both relations.

Check 2 <= 3 /\ 2 == 2.
2 <= 3 /\ 2 == 2 : Prop
Fail Check forall (e : EQ.type) (x y : EQ.obj e), x <= y -> y <= x -> x == y.
The command has indeed failed with message: In environment e : EQ.type x : EQ.obj e y : EQ.obj e The term "x" has type "EQ.obj e" while it is expected to have type "LE.obj ?e".
Fail Check forall (e : LE.type) (x y : LE.obj e), x <= y -> y <= x -> x == y.
The command has indeed failed with message: In environment e : LE.type x : LE.obj e y : LE.obj e The term "x" has type "LE.obj e" while it is expected to have type "EQ.obj ?e".

We need to define a new class that inherits from both EQ and LE.

Module LEQ.
Interactive Module LEQ started
Record mixin (e : EQ.type) (le : EQ.obj e -> EQ.obj e -> Prop) :=     Mixin { compat : forall x y : EQ.obj e, le x y /\ le y x <-> x == y }.
mixin is defined compat is defined
Record class T := Class {                       EQ_class : EQ.class T;                       LE_class : LE.class T;                       extra : mixin (EQ.Pack T EQ_class) (LE.cmp T LE_class) }.
class is defined EQ_class is defined LE_class is defined extra is defined
Structure type := _Pack { obj : Type; #[canonical=no] class_of : class obj }.
type is defined obj is defined class_of is defined
Arguments Mixin {e le} _.
Arguments Class {T} _ _ _.

The mixin component of the LEQ class contains all the extra content we are adding to EQ and LE. In particular it contains the requirement that the two relations we are combining are compatible.

The class_of projection of the type structure is annotated as not canonical; it plays no role in the search for instances.

Unfortunately there is still an obstacle to developing the algebraic theory of this new class.

Module theory.
Interactive Module theory started
Fail Check forall (le : type) (n m : obj le), n <= m -> n <= m -> n == m.
The command has indeed failed with message: In environment le : type n : obj le m : obj le The term "n" has type "obj le" while it is expected to have type "LE.obj ?e".

The problem is that the two classes LE and LEQ are not yet related by a subclass relation. In other words Coq does not see that an object of the LEQ class is also an object of the LE class.

The following two constructions tell Coq how to canonically build the LE.type and EQ.type structure given an LEQ.type structure on the same type.

Definition to_EQ (e : type) : EQ.type :=    EQ.Pack (obj e) (EQ_class _ (class_of e)).
to_EQ is defined
Canonical Structure to_EQ.
Definition to_LE (e : type) : LE.type :=    LE.Pack (obj e) (LE_class _ (class_of e)).
to_LE is defined
Canonical Structure to_LE.

We can now formulate out first theorem on the objects of the LEQ structure.

Lemma lele_eq (e : type) (x y : obj e) : x <= y -> y <= x -> x == y.
1 goal e : type x, y : obj e ============================ x <= y -> y <= x -> x == y
now intros; apply (compat _ _ (extra _ (class_of e)) x y); split.
No more goals.
Qed.
Arguments lele_eq {e} x y _ _.
End theory.
Module theory is defined
End LEQ.
Module LEQ is defined
Import LEQ.theory.
Check lele_eq.
lele_eq : forall x y : LEQ.obj ?e, x <= y -> y <= x -> x == y where ?e : [ |- LEQ.type]

Of course one would like to apply results proved in the algebraic setting to any concrete instate of the algebraic structure.

Example test_algebraic (n m : nat) : n <= m -> m <= n -> n == m.
1 goal n, m : nat ============================ n <= m -> m <= n -> n == m
Fail apply (lele_eq n m).
The command has indeed failed with message: In environment n, m : nat The term "n" has type "nat" while it is expected to have type "LEQ.obj ?e".
Abort.
Example test_algebraic2 (l1 l2 : LEQ.type) (n m : LEQ.obj l1 * LEQ.obj l2) :      n <= m -> m <= n -> n == m.
1 goal l1, l2 : LEQ.type n, m : LEQ.obj l1 * LEQ.obj l2 ============================ n <= m -> m <= n -> n == m
Fail apply (lele_eq n m).
The command has indeed failed with message: In environment l1, l2 : LEQ.type n, m : LEQ.obj l1 * LEQ.obj l2 The term "n" has type "(LEQ.obj l1 * LEQ.obj l2)%type" while it is expected to have type "LEQ.obj ?e".
Abort.

Again one has to tell Coq that the type nat is in the LEQ class, and how the type constructor * interacts with the LEQ class. In the following proofs are omitted for brevity.

Lemma nat_LEQ_compat (n m : nat) : n <= m /\ m <= n <-> n == m.
1 goal n, m : nat ============================ n <= m /\ m <= n <-> n == m
nat_LEQ_compat is declared
Definition nat_LEQmx := LEQ.Mixin nat_LEQ_compat.
nat_LEQmx is defined
Lemma pair_LEQ_compat (l1 l2 : LEQ.type) (n m : LEQ.obj l1 * LEQ.obj l2) :    n <= m /\ m <= n <-> n == m.
1 goal l1, l2 : LEQ.type n, m : LEQ.obj l1 * LEQ.obj l2 ============================ n <= m /\ m <= n <-> n == m
pair_LEQ_compat is declared
Definition pair_LEQmx l1 l2 := LEQ.Mixin (pair_LEQ_compat l1 l2).
pair_LEQmx is defined

The following script registers an LEQ class for nat and for the type constructor *. It also tests that they work as expected.

Unfortunately, these declarations are very verbose. In the following subsection we show how to make them more compact.

Canonical Structure nat_LEQty : LEQ.type :=     LEQ._Pack nat (LEQ.Class nat_EQcl nat_LEcl nat_LEQmx).
nat_LEQty is defined
Canonical Structure pair_LEQty (l1 l2 : LEQ.type) : LEQ.type :=     LEQ._Pack (LEQ.obj l1 * LEQ.obj l2)       (LEQ.Class          (EQ.class_of (pair_EQty (to_EQ l1) (to_EQ l2)))          (LE.class_of (pair_LEty (to_LE l1) (to_LE l2)))          (pair_LEQmx l1 l2)).
pair_LEQty is defined
Example test_algebraic (n m : nat) : n <= m -> m <= n -> n == m.
1 goal n, m : nat ============================ n <= m -> m <= n -> n == m
now apply (lele_eq n m).
No more goals.
Qed.
Example test_algebraic2 (n m : nat * nat) : n <= m -> m <= n -> n == m.
1 goal n, m : nat * nat ============================ n <= m -> m <= n -> n == m
now apply (lele_eq n m). Qed.
No more goals.

Note that no direct proof of n <= m -> m <= n -> n == m is provided by the user for n and m of type nat * nat. What the user provides is a proof of this statement for n and m of type nat and a proof that the pair constructor preserves this property. The combination of these two facts is a simple form of proof search that Coq performs automatically while inferring canonical structures.

### Compact declaration of Canonical Structures¶

We need some infrastructure for that.

Require Import Strings.String.
Module infrastructure.
Interactive Module infrastructure started
Inductive phantom {T : Type} (t : T) : Type := Phantom.
phantom is defined phantom_rect is defined phantom_ind is defined phantom_rec is defined phantom_sind is defined
Definition unify {T1 T2} (t1 : T1) (t2 : T2) (s : option string) :=     phantom t1 -> phantom t2.
unify is defined
Definition id {T} {t : T} (x : phantom t) := x.
id is defined
Notation "[find v | t1 ~ t2 ] p" := (fun v (_ : unify t1 t2 None) => p)     (at level 50, v name, only parsing).
Notation "[find v | t1 ~ t2 | s ] p" := (fun v (_ : unify t1 t2 (Some s)) => p)     (at level 50, v name, only parsing).
Notation "'Error : t : s" := (unify _ t (Some s))     (at level 50, format "''Error' : t : s").
Open Scope string_scope.
End infrastructure.
Module infrastructure is defined

To explain the notation [find v | t1 ~ t2] let us pick one of its instances: [find e | EQ.obj e ~ T | "is not an EQ.type" ]. It should be read as: “find a class e such that its objects have type T or fail with message "T is not an EQ.type"”.

The other utilities are used to ask Coq to solve a specific unification problem, that will in turn require the inference of some canonical structures. They are explained in more details in [MT13].

We now have all we need to create a compact “packager” to declare instances of the LEQ class.

Import infrastructure.
Definition packager T e0 le0 (m0 : LEQ.mixin e0 le0) :=   [find e | EQ.obj e ~ T | "is not an EQ.type" ]   [find o | LE.obj o ~ T | "is not an LE.type" ]   [find ce | EQ.class_of e ~ ce ]   [find co | LE.class_of o ~ co ]   [find m | m ~ m0 | "is not the right mixin" ]   LEQ._Pack T (LEQ.Class ce co m).
packager is defined
Notation Pack T m := (packager T _ _ m _ id _ id _ id _ id _ id).

The object Pack takes a type T (the key) and a mixin m. It infers all the other pieces of the class LEQ and declares them as canonical values associated with the T key. All in all, the only new piece of information we add in the LEQ class is the mixin, all the rest is already canonical for T and hence can be inferred by Coq.

Pack is a notation, hence it is not type checked at the time of its declaration. It will be type checked when it is used, an in that case T is going to be a concrete type. The odd arguments _ and id we pass to the packager represent respectively the classes to be inferred (like e, o, etc) and a token (id) to force their inference. Again, for all the details the reader can refer to [MT13].

The declaration of canonical instances can now be way more compact:

Canonical Structure nat_LEQty := Eval hnf in Pack nat nat_LEQmx.
nat_LEQty is defined
Canonical Structure pair_LEQty (l1 l2 : LEQ.type) :=    Eval hnf in Pack (LEQ.obj l1 * LEQ.obj l2) (pair_LEQmx l1 l2).
pair_LEQty is defined

Error messages are also quite intelligible (if one skips to the end of the message).

Fail Canonical Structure err := Eval hnf in Pack bool nat_LEQmx.
The command has indeed failed with message: The term "id" has type "phantom (EQ.obj ?e) -> phantom (EQ.obj ?e)" while it is expected to have type "'Error:bool:"is not an EQ.type"".